By Paul Krugman
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Extra resources for A Country Is Not a Company
Nor did economies of scale, managerial efficiency, technological dynamism or actual consumer interest figure in the implementation of this set of controls. Furthermore, large private enterprises with foreign equity participation of over 40 per cent were subjected to even tighter controls. The Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) of 1974 forced foreign investors to dilute their equity share to 40 per cent or less The Policy Setting 31 unless they were deemed to be in 'high technology' or export-oriented activities.
It requires an effort of imagination to disentangle them. 3 29 INDUSTRIAL POLICIES Indian industrial policies evolved over the 1950s and 1960s to a highly complex apparatus of regulation, covering practically every aspect of a manufacturing firm's existence and operations. The trade regime described earlier required the licensing of all imports, capital goods and intermediate inputs alike, severely circumscribing its access to foreign sources. This effectively determined the vintage and quality of the embodied technology it could deploy.
While not exercised very frequently, the option served to deter new investment by several large firms. All these policies affected technological development indirectly. They restrained competition, growth and the efficient allocation of resources, so inhibiting the incentives and resources for improving technology. The government also launched several policies directly related to science and technology. Ostensibly intended to build up indigenous technological capabilities, the results they achieved were mixed.
A Country Is Not a Company by Paul Krugman